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Bullying – What Children Should Do if They Are Bullied

It’s normal for children to be frightened or angry when other children bully them. But they can discourage attacks by showing confidence and not overreacting.

Children should not fight with a bullying child or make verbal or written insults. This could lead to more aggression and possibly serious injury. Have your child call out for help or find an adult or peer right away if he or she feels unsafe.

Face-to-face and cyberbullying

Children who are bullied online or in text messages should not reply. It is best for them to show the message to an adult and block any more messages from the sender. Remind them to only accept messages from people they know.

Give your child these tips to handle face-to-face bullying:

  • Talk to the bullying child if it feels safe. Look him or her in the eye and say strongly but calmly, “Leave me alone” or “You don’t scare me.”
  • Walk away from the bullying child or children. Children who are being bullied should not run (even though they may want to). It may strengthen a feeling of power in the bullying child.
  • Tell an adult about the episode. It might help for children to identify an adult at school to tell if incidents occur. Children who see another child being harmed also should seek help from an adult right away.

Children may worry about making other kids angry by telling on them. But exposing the abuse is the only way to stop the problem. A child can ask to remain anonymous when reporting an incident.

If your child gets left out

Bullying happens when children shut out or exclude others. These actions can be subtle. But they can be very hurtful to the child who is abused. This type of bullying is called emotional or social bullying, and it is very isolating. It’s also hard to manage because the pain it causes is not physical and can be hard to explain to an adult.

Girls who bully tend to do so in social or emotional ways. And boys who bully tend to do so in both physical and emotional ways. Both boys and girls can be targets of emotional bullying. Gossiping and “backstabbing” are common techniques used by girls who bully in this way.

Although there is no easy or foolproof solution, it may help to try some of the following strategies.

  • Recognize the behavior. Trying to ignore it won’t make it go away. Help your child accept that there is a problem and know that you will help him or her through this difficult time. Help your child understand that he or she is not to blame.
  • Role-play. Practice, practice, practice ways to respond to hurtful comments or actions until they come naturally. Help your child think up different scenarios and different ways to respond in them. Have fun with this—make up absurd or outrageous situations. Also, practice using humor as a way to be assertive. Sometimes saying things like, “Oh, please! You’ve been watching too much TV!” or simply, “I don’t need that!” and walking away can stop bullying. This creative thinking can help your child relieve tension and gain some feeling of control.
  • Encourage your child to pursue interests in a different environment. Assure your child that he or she will meet friends who value him or her. Help your child look for areas of life where he or she feels accepted, likable, and normal. And help your child find opportunities to develop well-balanced friendships.
  • Talk to school leaders. If the bullying occurs in certain social situations or school activities, sometimes it is just best to remove your child from the situation. It is not always in a child’s best interest to “stick it out.” Often, in fear of causing disappointment, children do not want to tell their parents that this is the solution they prefer. Ask your child if he or she really wants to continue to be in the activity. If the bullying occurs in a general school setting, work with teachers and counselors to help your child not be around those who bully.
  • Stay out of groups who bully others. Sometimes a child who was shunned before will suddenly be “invited” into or back into a group. Talk about the fickle nature of such friendships. Ask your child how he or she would feel if pressured to exclude another person. Help your child discover the qualities of long-lasting and true friendships.
  • Let your child know you are always there for him or her. You may not be able to come up with the perfect answer for the problem. But you can help by telling your child that you will always be there to listen and to help him or her think about new ways to handle being bullied.

20 Important Benefits of Music In Our Schools


Nearly everyone enjoys music, whether by listening to it, singing, or playing an instrument. But despite this almost universal interest, many schools are having to do away with their music education programs. This is a mistake, with schools losing not only an enjoyable subject, but a subject that can enrich students’ lives and education. Read on to learn why music education is so important, and how it offers benefits even beyond itself.

1. Musical training helps develop language and reasoning: Students who have early musical training will develop the areas of the brain related to language and reasoning. The left side of the brain is better developed with music, and songs can help imprint information on young minds.

2. A mastery of memorization: Even when performing with sheet music, student musicians are constantly using their memory to perform. The skill of memorization can serve students well in education and beyond.

3. Students learn to improve their work: Learning music promotes craftsmanship, and students learn to want to create good work instead of mediocre work. This desire can be applied to all subjects of study.

4. Increased coordination: Students who practice with musical instruments can improve their hand-eye coordination. Just like playing sports, children can develop motor skills when playing music.

5. A sense of achievement: Learning to play pieces of music on a new instrument can be a challenging, but achievable goal. Students who master even the smallest goal in music will be able to feel proud of their achievement.

6. Kids stay engaged in school: An enjoyable subject like music can keep kids interested and engaged in school. Student musicians are likely to stay in school to achieve in other subjects.

7. Success in society: Music is the fabric of our society, and music can shape abilities and character. Students in band or orchestra are less likely to abuse substances over their lifetime. Musical education can greatly contribute to children’s intellectual development as well.

8. Emotional development: Students of music can be more emotionally developed, with empathy towards other cultures They also tend to have higher self esteem and are better at coping with anxiety.

9. Students learn pattern recognition: Children can develop their math and pattern-recognition skills with the help of musical education. Playing music offers repetition in a fun format.

10. Better SAT scores: Students who have experience with music performance or appreciation score higher on the SAT. One report indicates 63 points higher on verbal and 44 points higher on math for students in music appreciation courses.

11. Fine-tuned auditory skills: Musicians can better detect meaningful, information-bearing elements in sounds, like the emotional meaning in a baby’s cry. Students who practice music can have better auditory attention, and pick out predictable patterns from surrounding noise.

12. Music builds imagination and intellectual curiosity: Introducing music in the early childhood years can help foster a positive attitude toward learning and curiosity. Artistic education develops the whole brain and develops a child’s imagination.

13. Music can be relaxing: Students can fight stress by learning to play music. Soothing music is especially helpful in helping kids relax.

14. Musical instruments can teach discipline: Kids who learn to play an instrument can learn a valuable lesson in discipline. They will have to set time aside to practice and rise to the challenge of learning with discipline to master playing their instrument.

15. Preparation for the creative economy: Investing in creative education can prepare students for the 21st century workforce. The new economy has created more artistic careers, and these jobs may grow faster than others in the future.

16. Development in creative thinking: Kids who study the arts can learn to think creatively. This kind of education can help them solve problems by thinking outside the box and realizing that there may be more than one right answer.

17. Music can develop spatial intelligence: Students who study music can improve the development of spatial intelligence, which allows them to perceive the world accurately and form mental pictures. Spatial intelligence is helpful for advanced mathematics and more.

18. Kids can learn teamwork: Many musical education programs require teamwork as part of a band or orchestra. In these groups, students will learn how to work together and build camaraderie.

19. Responsible risk-taking: Performing a musical piece can bring fear and anxiety. Doing so teaches kids how to take risks and deal with fear, which will help them become successful and reach their potential.

20. Better self-confidence: With encouragement from teachers and parents, students playing a musical instrument can build pride and confidence. Musical education is also likely to develop better communication for students.

Twelve Benefits of Music Education

1. Early musical training helps develop brain areas involved in language and reasoning. It is thought that brain development continues for many years after birth. Recent studies have clearly indicated that musical training physically develops the part of the left side of the brain known to be involved with processing language, and can actually wire the brain’s circuits in specific ways. Linking familiar songs to new information can also help imprint information on young minds.

2. There is also a causal link between music and spatial intelligence (the ability to perceive the world accurately and to form mental pictures of things). This kind of intelligence, by which one can visualize various elements that should go together, is critical to the sort of thinking necessary for everything from solving advanced mathematics problems to being able to pack a book-bag with everything that will be needed for the day.

3. Students of the arts learn to think creatively and to solve problems by imagining various solutions, rejecting outdated rules and assumptions. Questions about the arts do not have only one right answer.

4. Recent studies show that students who study the arts are more successful on standardized tests such as the SAT. They also achieve higher grades in high school.

5. A study of the arts provides children with an internal glimpse of other cultures and teaches them to be empathetic towards the people of these cultures. This development of compassion and empathy, as opposed to development of greed and a “me first” attitude, provides a bridge across cultural chasms that leads to respect of other races at an early age.

6. Students of music learn craftsmanship as they study how details are put together painstakingly and what constitutes good, as opposed to mediocre, work. These standards, when applied to a student’s own work, demand a new level of excellence and require students to stretch their inner resources.

7. In music, a mistake is a mistake; the instrument is in tune or not, the notes are well played or not, the entrance is made or not. It is only by much hard work that a successful performance is possible. Through music study, students learn the value of sustained effort to achieve excellence and the concrete rewards of hard work.

8. Music study enhances teamwork skills and discipline. In order for an orchestra to sound good, all players must work together harmoniously towards a single goal, the performance, and must commit to learning music, attending rehearsals, and practicing.

9. Music provides children with a means of self-expression. Now that there is relative security in the basics of existence, the challenge is to make life meaningful and to reach for a higher stage of development. Everyone needs to be in touch at some time in his life with his core, with what he is and what he feels. Self-esteem is a by-product of this self-expression.

10. Music study develops skills that are necessary in the workplace. It focuses on “doing,” as opposed to observing, and teaches students how to perform, literally, anywhere in the world. Employers are looking for multi-dimensional workers with the sort of flexible and supple intellects that music education helps to create as described above. In the music classroom, students can also learn to better communicate and cooperate with one another.

11. Music performance teaches young people to conquer fear and to take risks. A little anxiety is a good thing, and something that will occur often in life. Dealing with it early and often makes it less of a problem later. Risk-taking is essential if a child is to fully develop his or her potential. Music contributes to mental health and can help prevent risky behavior such as teenage drug abuse, which often leads to institutionalization in a teen rehab.

12. An arts education exposes children to the incomparable.

How to Become a More Effective Learner

Are you interested in finding ways to learn new things faster? Do you want to become a more effective and efficient learner? If you are like many students, your time is limited so it is important to get the most educational value out of the time you have available.

Speed of learning is not the only important factor, however. Retention, recall, and transfer are also critical. Students need to be able to accurately remember the information they learn, recall it at a later time, and utilize it effectively in a wide variety of situations.

So what can you do to become a better learner? Becoming an effective and efficient student is not something that happens overnight, but putting a few of these tips into daily practice can help you get more out of your study time.

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1.  Memory Improvement Basics

We’ve talked before about some of the best ways to improve memory. Basic tips such as improving your focus, avoiding cram sessions, and structuring your study time are a good place to start, but there are even more lessons from psychology that can dramatically improve your learning efficiency. Check out some of these memory improvement tips to maximize your memorization and retention of new information.

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2.  Keep Learning (and Practicing) New Things

One sure-fire way to become a more effective learner is to simply keep learning. A 2004 Nature article reported that people who learned how to juggle increased the amount of gray matter in their occipital lobes, the area of the brain is associated with visual memory. When these individuals stopped practicing their new skill, this gray matter vanished.

So if you’re learning a new language, it is important to keep practicing the language in order to maintain the gains you have achieved. This “use-it-or-lose-it” phenomenon involves a brain process known as “pruning.” Certain pathways in the brain are maintained, while other are eliminated. If you want the new information you just learned to stay put, keep practicing and rehearsing it.

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3.  Learn in Multiple Ways

Focus on learning in more than one way. Instead of just listening to a podcast, which involves auditory learning, find a way to rehearse the information both verbally and visually. This might involve describing what you learned to a friend, taking notes, or drawing a mind map. By learning in more than one way, you’re further cementing the knowledge in your mind.

According to Judy Willis, “The more regions of the brain that store data about a subject, the more interconnection there is. This redundancy means students will have more opportunities to pull up all of those related bits of data from their multiple storage areas in response to a single cue. This cross-referencing of data means we have learned, rather than just memorized.”

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4.  Teach What You’ve Learned to Another Person

Educators have long noted that one of the best ways to learn something is to teach it to someone else. Remember your seventh-grade presentation on Costa Rica? By teaching to the rest of the class, your teacher hoped you would gain even more from the assignment. You can apply the same principle today by sharing your newly learned skills and knowledge with others.

Start by translating the information into your own words. This process alone helps solidify new knowledge in your brain. Next, find some way to share what you’ve learned. Some ideas include writing a blog post, creating a podcast, or participating in a group discussion.

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5.  Utilize Previous Learning to Promote New Learning

Another great way to become a more effective learner is to use relational learning, which involves relating new information to things that you already know. For example, if you are learning about Romeo and Juliet, you might associate what you learn about the play with prior knowledge you have about Shakespeare, the historical period in which the author lived, and other relevant information.

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6.  Gain Practical Experience

For many students, learning typically involves reading textbooks, attending lectures, or doing research in the library or on the Web. While seeing information and then writing it down is important, actually putting new knowledge and skills into practice can be one of the best ways to improve learning.

If you are trying to acquire a new skill or ability, focus on gaining practical experience. If it is a sport or athletic skill, perform the activity on a regular basis. If you are learning a new language, practice speaking with another person and surround yourself with language-immersion experiences. Watch foreign-language films and strike up conversations with native speakers to practice your budding skills.

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7.  Look Up Answers Rather Than Struggle to Remember

Of course, learning isn’t a perfect process. Sometimes, we forget the details of things that we have already learned. If you find yourself struggling to recall some tidbit of information, research suggests that you are better offer simply looking up the correct answer.

One study found that the longer you spend trying to remember the answer, the more likely you will be to forget the answer again in the future. Why? Because these attempts to recall previously learned information actually results in learning the “error state” instead of the correct response.

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8.  Understand How You Learn Best

Another great strategy for improving your learning efficiency is to recognize your learning habits and styles. There are a number of different theories about learning styles, which can all help you gain a better understanding of how you learn best. The concept of learning styles has been the subject of considerable debate and criticism, but many students may find that understanding their learning preferences can still be helpful.

Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences describes eight different types of intelligence that can help reveal your individual strengths. Looking at Carl Jung’s learning style dimensions can also help you better see which learning strategies might work best for you. Other models such as the VARK learning styles and Kolb’s learning styles can offer more information about how you prefer to learn new things.

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9.  Use Testing to Boost Learning

While it may seem that spending more time studying is one of the best ways to maximize learning, research has demonstrated that taking tests actually helps you better remember what you’ve learned, even if it wasn’t covered on the test. The study revealed that students who studied and were then tested had better long-term recall of the materials, even on information that was not covered by the tests. Students who had extra time to study but were not tested had significantly lower recall of the materials.

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10.  Stop Multitasking

For many years, it was thought that people who multitask, or perform more than one activity at once, had an edge over those who did not. However, research now suggests that multitasking can actually make learning less effective.

In the study, participants lost significant amounts of time as they switched between multiple tasks and lost even more time as the tasks became increasingly complex. By switching from one activity to another, you will learn more slowly, become less efficient and make more errors.

Technology And Learning Is Perfect ?

Instructors face the same challenges with online learning and the use of technology in the classroom as they face with conventional instruction: getting students to read and think critically about the information with which they are presented. Moreover, instructors will be required to use distance learning technology more and more in the future. Some in politics and higher education are advocating expanding online course offerings, especially at public institutions of higher education, because it can “expand the supply of seats” and the number of students an institution can accept, thereby increasing a university’s tuition revenue. Clearly, if the politicians have their way, online learning will only increase in the future (Ruiz, 2011a).

Online instruction and learning is one of the most important pedagogies of the twenty-first century. Instructors should integrate the use of technology and online sources into all of their instruction so that students see that, whether in a conventional class or an online course, the amount of work is similar and just as important. Demonstrating to students that research and learning is hard work, work that technology can make “easier” if approached properly, will better prepare our students for advanced learning and their professional careers. Instructors must demonstrate to students that work in regular courses is not more arduous than in online courses and that technology and online sources are important components of all learning. Instructors can help students realize that the technology they use must be used for more than mere communication or entertainment—it can be used for learning about the world around them. Above all, instructors must also impress upon students that independent learning will be vital to their professional careers later on. Students should embrace these independent learning skills now, in the classroom, in whatever subject they are studying to be better prepared for the job market upon graduation. Online learning exposes students to the skills they will need long after they have left the campus.

Therefore, all students should be required to take at least one serious online course in their college career in order to learn how to master the process of information gathering and presentation, and to use the technology effectively. There is no easy way out of critical thinking, research, and learning, not even with today’s advanced technology. Instructors can prepare students effectively only when we clearly demonstrate to them the connection between technology and learning, and how vital this connection to their future careers. It is the most important pedagogy of the twenty-first century.

Myths vs. Facts of Education

Myth: The Common Core Standards are federal standards.
The standards were developed through a state-led initiative spearheaded by governors and state school chiefs. The federal government did not develop the standards.

Myth: The standards are federally mandated.
The standards are not federally mandated. Mississippi, along with 45 other states and the District of Columbia, voluntarily adopted the standards. The federal government didn’t write them, didn’t approve them, and doesn’t mandate them.

Myth: The Common Core shifts control of education from local school boards to the federal government.
: Local school boards retain their same level of authority as they had prior to the adoption of the standards. 

Myth: The Common Core won’t prepare students for college and career.
: The Standards reflect the real-world expectations of what is necessary for students to succeed in higher education and the workforce, including critical-thinking, problem solving, and effective communication skills, regardless of their pathway after high school. To this end, the standards were developed using evidence that includes scholarly research; surveys on what skills are required of students entering college and workforce training programs; assessment data identifying college and career-ready performance; and comparisons to standards from high-performing states and nations, among other data. Together with highly trained, well-supported teachers, the Standards will better prepare Mississippi students for college and career.

Myth: The Common Core is not internationally benchmarked.
: The Standards draw from the best existing standards in the country and are benchmarked to the top performing nations around the world, ensuring that our students are well prepared to compete with their peers abroad for the jobs of the future.

Myth: The Common Core Standards are a curriculum that tells teachers what to teach.
: The Standards are not a curriculum. Rather, they represent a set of goals that outline what students should know and be able to do by the end of each grade in English and math. Decisions about how to teach the standards (e.g. curriculum, tools, materials and textbooks) are left to local school districts who know their students best.

Myth: No teachers were involved in writing the standards.
The Common Core State Standards drafting process relied on teachers and standards experts from across the country. In addition, there were many state experts that came together to create the most thoughtful and transparent process of standard setting. This was only made possible by many states working together. For more information, please visit:

Myth: Implementing the Common Core will not require any big changes in teaching or learning.
The Common Core State Standards will require new methods of teaching that lead students to become critical thinkers and problem solvers with higher levels of subject mastery. Mississippi teachers will need additional training and time to adopt more innovative instructional methods and deepen their content knowledge.

Myth: The Common Core does not have enough emphasis on fiction and literature.
: While there is a shift towards including informational text in the standards, literature is included. The Standards require certain critical content for all students, including: classic myths and stories from around the world, America’s Founding Documents, foundational American literature, and Shakespeare. Appropriately, the remaining crucial decisions about what content should be taught are left to state and local determination. In addition to content coverage, the Standards require that students systematically acquire knowledge in literature and other disciplines through reading, writing, speaking, and listening.

Myth: The math standard does not address algebra until high school.
Fact: :
 Common Core grade 8 standards include some algebraic concepts such as proportional relationships, functions, linear functions and equations, systems of linear functions. These standards also include some statistical and probability concepts traditionally taught in an Algebra I course. This collection of standards and skills taught at Grade 8 will transition students effectively into a full Algebra 1 course at the high school level. It is important to note that the Standards accommodate and prepare students for Algebra 1 in 8th grade, by including the prerequisites for this course in grades K‐7. Students who master the grades K‐7 material will be able to take Algebra 1 in 8th grade—if they are academically prepared to do so at the request of the school district and parents.

Myth: Common Core was developed quickly and with little public comment.
The standards were developed by a thoughtful and transparent process led by the National Governors Association and Council for Chief State School Officers. The process relied on teachers, experts from across the country and feedback from key stakeholders and the general public. NGA and CCSSO received nearly 10,000 comments in response to the draft standards, which were incorporated into the standards.

Myth: Common Core requires massive data tracking of student information.
The Common Core does not require student data collection. Mississippi only adopted content standards in mathematics and English language arts.

Myth: The standards will be implemented through NCLB – signifying the federal government will be leading them.
Fact: The Common Core State Standards initiative is a state‐led effort that is not part of No Child Left Behind and adoption of the standards is in no way mandatory. States began the work to create clear, consistent standards before the Recovery Act or the Elementary and Secondary Education Act blueprint were released because this work is being driven by the needs of the states, not the federal government.

Myth: The Common Core State Standards set lower achievement goals by race.
Fact: Under a flexibility request for waivers from the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, approved in 2012, the MDE has set expectations based upon students’ current performance levels, while still expecting all students to meet proficiency. Achievement gaps exist among students in Mississippi as well as nationally. This has no relation to Common Core State Standards.

The annual measurable objectives (AMOs) in the flexibility request outline a six-year plan to cut the achievement gaps in half for all subgroups of students.

Consider this analogy. Students from Brandon, McComb, and Corinth are all traveling to a conference in Jackson. Each student group has two days to arrive at the meeting. The students from Brandon must travel 5 miles each day to arrive, while the students from McComb must travel 40 miles each day, and the students from Corinth must travel 120 miles each day.

Myth and Fact of Education

Myth #1: Teachers Are the Most Important Influence on a Child’s Education

Of course teachers are extremely important. Good teachers make a significant difference in achievement. But research indicates that less than 30 percent of a student’s academic success is attributable to schools and teachers. The most significant variable is socioeconomic status, followed by the neighborhood, the psychological quality of the home environment, and the support of physical health provided. There are others, but the bottom line is that teachers have far less power to improve student achievement than do varied outside factors.

Myth #2: Homework Boosts Achievement

There is no evidence that this is true. In Finland, students have higher achievement with little or no homework and shorter school hours. The more important factor is what students experience during the school day. Project-based learning, as one example, places the emphasis on what is done during the day. If students choose to do more after hours, that’s their choice. There also may sometimes be other good reasons to assign homework, but there should be no illusion that homework will help increase student achievement.

Myth #3: Class Size Does Not Matter

In an average high school, one teacher is responsible for 100-150 students on any given day. Students inevitably get lost in the shuffle. Research evidence strongly indicates that a decrease in the number of students has a qualitative pedagogical impact. When reductions occur in elementary classrooms, evidence has shown that the extra individualized attention and instruction appear to make it more likely for these students to graduate at higher rates from high school. Affluent families more frequently opt for districts or for private schools with smaller classes. It should come as no surprise that larger class sizes may disproportionally impact the children of the poor. Therefore, reducing class sizes will in fact result in more learning.

Myth #4: A Successful Program Works Everywhere

There is significant evidence against the idea that a program successful in one school or district should be imported elsewhere and expected to work well. Context is the key variable. Programs must be related to the makeup of the school district and/or the specific school. Approaches to education that are marketed for nationwide use may be excellent yet totally inappropriate for some districts. A program has to fit the specific needs of the schools and classrooms in the district, and a careful needs assessment coupled with a thorough examination should determine whether to adopt a program, not the success of the program elsewhere.

Myth #5: Zero-Tolerance Policies Are Making Schools Safer

This strikes me as one of the most colossally wrong-headed and destructive of the myths. Berliner and Glass describe numerous examples of this policy being implemented destructively, including one in which two students were suspended because one shared her inhaler with a friend who was having an asthma attack. Most importantly, there is no evidence that zero tolerance policies decrease school violence. To the contrary, the authors note that “suspensions and expulsions have far-reaching implications for a student’s academics and can set them up for failure in their personal lives.” Zero tolerance policies have resulted in school officials routing record numbers of students through the juvenile justice system, students who are then more likely to also end up in an adult prison later on. And, not surprisingly, all of the unintended effects associated with zero-tolerance policies in schools are multiplied for non-whites.

The authors also give examples of some schools that are learning from this research. As one example, after the tragic events at Sandy Hook Elementary School, teachers, parents, and administrators are focused on crisis preparedness and the politics of the gun debate, not on stricter policing of students.

Myth #6: Money Doesn’t Matter

It’s a popular argument that, while we’re spending more money than ever, test scores remain stagnant. This is a destructive myth widely shared by those who oppose better funding of our schools. Yet the research is clear. When school districts with sufficient resources are compared with those without, achievement outcomes are definitively higher in the wealthier districts. The authors note that it makes a significant difference in terms of student achievement when higher salaries are used to attract more experienced and better-educated teachers. Schools that serve the poor are more likely to retain well-paid teachers, despite the challenging circumstances they deal with each day. Since class size does matter, as we’ve seen, adequate funding makes it possible to hire more teachers and reduce class sizes. All of these assertions are strongly supported by research. Additionally, the authors cite Linda Darling-Hammond’s report on new research from Finland, Singapore, and other countries that provides “striking evidence that spending more, and targeting that spending at students who come to school with the fewest resources, can have a dramatic positive impact on a nation’s overall educational outcomes.”

Of course, it is also possible that the school districts spending more money are located in communities in which socioeconomic factors and neighborhood quality play an important role.

Myth #7: College Admissions Are Based on Academic Achievement and Test Scores

Berliner and Glass’ findings are disturbing. Many colleges and universities practice admissions by category. One example is athletics. The most significant variable at 30 of the most selective universities was discovered to be legacy (whether a family member previously attended the university). Wealthy parents who contribute development funds further increase the likelihood of admission. This doesn’t mean that universities don’t pay attention to student achievement in their admissions process. It does mean that there is preferential treatment in admissions that relegates academic accomplishments to a lower priority.

Myth #8: Merit Pay for Teachers Improves Student Performance

The full argument is that merit pay is a good way to increase teacher performance, because teachers should be evaluated on the basis of student performance, and rewarding or punishing schools for student performance will improve our nation’s schools. However, evidence suggests that competition between teachers is counterproductive and interferes with collaboration. Measuring teacher effectiveness is very difficult, and no simple measures effectively do this. There is no evidence that merit pay correlates with improved student achievement, but there is strong evidence that basing teacher salaries on student performance is counterproductive and ethically wrong — it frequently punishes teachers and schools for socioeconomic factors over which they have no control.

Top 10 Tips For Revision

Exams and tests can be a stressful time for most students, but follow these fantastic stress-free tips for revising… and you might find yourself at the top of the brainy class!

  1. Study in a quiet place away from the TV and computers etc that is both light and comfortable.
  1. Make a ‘revision timetable’ and always let your family know when you are revising.
  2. Create summary notes and anything simple that helps your memory – as short notes, drawings and sayings are much easier to remember.
  3. Get help. Ask friends and family to test you. Also attend any teacher revision classes – as teachers will know better than anyone what will be in tests and exams!
  4. Record yourself reading notes and occasionally listen to them instead of reading.
  5. Take a 5 or 10 minute break every hour and do some stretching exercises, go for a short walk or make yourself a drink.
  6. Allow yourself some fun-time each day to relax…and make sure you get a good 8 hours of sleep each night.
  7. Eat well. Good brain foods? Wholegrain foods (cereals, wheat bran, wheatgerm and whole wheat pasta). Blueberries. Blackcurrants. Broccoli. Tomatoes. Oily fish. Nuts.
  8. Don’t panic if you feel a bit nervy. A certain amount of nervousness actually helps you perform to the best of your ability, producing a rush of adrenaline that helps you to feel alert and focused.
  9. Think positive – it’s seriously not the end of the world if you fail!

Now, it’s time to get your brainy heads into those text books. Good luck!

Reasons Why Kids Should Go to School

Reasons Why Kids Should Go to School


A portrait of elementary school classmates in front of a chalkboard. Photo Credit Digital Vision./Digital Vision/Getty Images


Close to 50 million children attended America’s public schools in 2010. Five million more students occupied lockers in private schools. Prekindergarten and kindergarten enrollment numbers are breaking records accoring to the United States Department of Education. More than 3 million teachers dedicate themselves to teaching these youngsters. The important lessons of reading, writing and arithmetic are just three reasons that these children and teachers will fill the classrooms.

Gain Social Skills

Family Education lists the development of important social skills as one of the leading reasons to send a toddler to preschool. By interacting with other children at an early age, kids learn how to take turns, how to listen and how to share. Playing with other kids also helps children learn about their own personalities, and their own likes and dislikes. The independence that kids gain in preschool is also a lesson that is hard to learn at home.

Social development doesn’t stop in kindergarten. Throughout elementary and secondary school, children learn how to negotiate, compromise and interact with their peers. Without learning these valuable skills as children, individuals would struggle in a professional setting when they are old enough to start working.

Learn Other Viewpoints

Public School Review explains that children who learn only at home have an individual learning experience, whereas children who learn in school do so through relationships. Learning through relationships is more reflective of the adult world in which people contribute to society by working together. Children in school systems hear other people’s ideas and viewpoints. They learn to merge different beliefs to create their own values and principles. In a school setting children learn to listen to various thoughts before forming their own opinions.

Qualify for Jobs

According to the Education Commission of the States, more than half of today’s employers insist on hiring people who have at least graduated from high school. That is up from 20 percent in the 1940s. The organization claims that young people with high school diplomas also earn more and are less likely to turn to public assistance or crime than those who haven’t graduated. A high school diploma shows colleges, technical schools and potential employers that a student has important life skills such as problem solving abilities, negotiation skills, and the ability to focus. A diploma is not given lightly. It is earned by students who go to school and succeed.

How to Talk to Sad, Jealous, Anxious Kids

However, we’re right on top of people, so we hear the goings on, especially with a neighbor family whose kids play outside. The parents are cool and friendly people in their 30s, and they’ve got two boys. The older boy is five, and the baby is just under two. The boys have very different temperaments. The baby is very adventurous and giggly, and the five year old is more careful, a little bit delicate, and he cries loudly when he’s scared or his feelings are hurt. A sensitive guy.

Photo of sad bunny

When the dad comes home from work, he and the boys play outside for about an hour, and over the weeks we’ve been here, a change is occurring. The older boy was the main play pal for his dad, but now the baby is walking and running, and it seems that dad is bonding a little bit better with the baby.

He and the baby will be crawling around in the ivy and laughing while the five-year-old stays separate and gets dramatic about falling or tripping or something. You can see the dad’s frustration at being called back constantly to attend to the older boy’s difficulties, and you can see that the older boy is trying to get his father back on his side, but he’s going about it all wrong.

Today, I heard someone yell loudly in a very mean way, “What do you think you’re DOING! You don’t take his toys! Get inside!” It sounded like an 11 or 12-year-old girl who was babysitting and hating it. But today’s a school day, so I looked outside, and it was the boys’ mom! I’ve never heard her yell like that, so it sounds as if the tension is increasing between the boys, even when Dad isn’t in the picture. Whoops.

This is a story that occurs every day, but how could it be different? Clearly, the older boy is feeling jealousy, envy, anger, anxiety, and grief. And he’s acting from all or most of them without any direction.

He’s a mess. But each of his emotions is true. He is losing his place in his most important love relationships (jealousy). He is losing his access to status and material possessions (envy). He is losing his old sense of self and his place in his world (anger). He doesn’t know what bad thing will come next (anxiety). And he is experiencing a serious loss (grief). It’s all true.

So how does a parent or a teacher help? First, of course, is to accept the emotions as true, even if they’re annoying. If you know what the emotions mean, you could ask the boy, “Do you sometimes feel like your parents like the baby more?” or, “Do you think the baby gets more attention than you do?” or, “Wow, when my little sister was born, I was so sad! How did you feel when your brother was born? How do you feel now?”

If you give a child the chance to explore his emotions in a safe place, he will learn how to manage them without other people needing to yell at him.

I know it’s hard. Every one of us as parents has gone all wild-eyed and acted like an 11-year-old babysitter who wasn’t getting paid enough. We’ve all done it, and if our emotions are working as they should, we have also felt shame for doing it. So the practice for shame is to make amends. To apologize to our children and let them into the emotional backstage of our lives — so that they’ll know that there IS an emotional backstage, and that everyone struggles.

Photo of LegosOur boy outside, he feels alone. But he’s not alone. We all struggle with our emotions in this emotionally-confused world, and we’re only alone if we lie to people and pretend we’ve got our emotions figured out.

Everyone needs training in emotions, and everyone needs a safe place to talk about them, so let’s make a safe place and change the world, yes?

I think I’ll see if our boy wants some Legos that I’ve got in the garage. Sensitive little people often love Legos, don’t you find? And you can talk about all sorts of stuff when you’re building with Legos. Sneaky!

11 Ways to Increase IQ

1. Exercise

People who exercise tend to have higher IQ scores than those who don’t. On average, individuals that take care of their bodies tend to be more intelligent than the chronic couch potatoes. Exercise is known to stimulate brain cell growth through a process called neurogenesis and flood the brain with pleasurable neurotransmitters like dopamine. Fitter individuals in high school are more likely to go on to college and do well there.

A lot of people don’t realize how powerful an effect rigorous exercise can have on decreasing stress and improving cognitive performance. I tend to think that exercise is one of the easiest ways to boost your IQ simply because it’s free and you can do it any time that’s convenient.

2. Stimulants and Nootropics (Smart Drugs)

Taking smart drugs like Adderall and NuVigil may help boost your IQ score. The abuse of these psychostimulants and cognitive enhancers is becoming more common these days to help people dominate the competition. They help people get into universities and graduate with good grades. These drugs will help you learn quicker and retain more information. There are many other enhancers like Ritalin on the market which stimulate the brain and boost brain power.

Any pill that increases your overall cognitive ability is going to help you improve your IQ score and performance on an IQ test. These are referred to by many as “smart drugs” for a reason. In my opinion, these boost mental brain power similar to taking steroids for improved physical abilities. Should you decide to take these medications to simply improve your cognition, just know that what comes up must come down; there’s no biological free lunch.

Eventually your tolerance is going to increase to the point where these no longer have an effect and withdrawal is generally tougher than most people admit. If there were one item on this list I would probably not want to get caught up in heavily, it would be the use of these smart drugs.  Read: “The Potential Dangers of Nootropics.”

3. Supplements

There are a variety of supplements that you can take to help boost your IQ. Will taking all of these supplements help you increase your IQ? Really the only way to find out is to experiment for yourself and see what happens. One of the most common ways to get a quick IQ boost is to drink some caffeine because it helps stimulate brain activity.

Caffeine + L-theanine – In combination these substances help improve performance on cognitively demanding tasks.


Creatine – Has been shown to help improve brain performance.


Ginkgo Biloba – Has been shown to help improve attention in healthy young volunteers.


Omega 3 Fatty Acids – Improves working memory. I’ve sorted out the best fish oil supplements and best krill oil supplements if you aren’t able to get sufficient dietary omega-3s.

4. Meditation

It is known that meditation can help decrease stress, improve mood, and light up brain activity. Additionally, it can increase performance on intelligence-related measures and increase IQ scores over time. There are many different types of meditation that can be practiced, but one that has been proven effective is Transcendental Meditation. Nearly all types of meditation will improve general brain functioning and cognition, so if you are already practicing your IQ and cognition should continue to improve.

Transcendental meditation involves sitting peacefully with one’s eyes closed and focusing on a specific mantra. This helps your brain focus on one specific thing at a time and can help improve overall focus. Although there are many different types of meditation, if you want to improve your IQ score, I would recommend a focus-oriented approach. In other words, choose a type of concentration meditation as opposed to mindfulness meditation.

5. Healthy Diet + Vegetarian?

Researchers have found that diet does play a role in IQ and brain development throughout childhood. The degree to which IQ is affected later in life by food choices isn’t as well documented. However, if you want to boost your intelligence, it is best to avoid eating processed foods. Individuals who eat a lot of processed foods tend to have lower intelligence scores than people who eat healthier non-processed items. The researchers found that diet influenced IQ regardless of other factors.

Another interesting finding was that individuals that reported being a vegetarian by age 30 had scored (on average) 5 points higher on IQ tests than those who were non-vegetarian. Since higher IQ’s are linked with: less obesity, healthier hearts, and living a longer life – some researchers suggest vegetarianism may play a role. Theres a link between healthier lives and IQ, and a link between higher IQ and vegetarianism. Does that mean there’s a link between vegetarianism and health? Possibly – more research needs to be conducted for me to believe that being a vegetarian increases IQ especially because I tend to think meats and fish are healthy for the brain.

6. Neurofeedback

Although there aren’t many studies linking neurofeedback with improvements in IQ scores, there is evidence that it can help increase intelligence among individuals with ADD and ADHD. People with ADD and ADHD tend to have slower brain wave activity in certain brain regions compared to normal individuals. Training their brains to speed up production of brain waves in specific regions can help them perform better and improve their intelligence scores.

Despite the fact that neurofeedback isn’t used much other than to help with cases of ADD and ADHD, it does have potential to improve cognitive performance in a normal brain as well. If the brain wave patterns are slightly abnormal on the EEG, uptraining SMR, low beta, or mid range beta may help improve intelligence.

7. Brainwave Entrainment

In most therapies involving brain waves, the purpose is to help people who struggle with ADD and ADHD. People that don’t have any major problems with focus or concentration likely don’t need brain wave stimulation to help them improve their intelligence. Despite the fact that brainwave entrainment has only been studied in people with ADD and ADHD to determine whether it would boost IQ, it was effective and increasing the GPAs of college students.


Additionally, low levels of gamma brain waves have been linked to brain development problems and mental retardation. Gamma waves are the range higher than beta waves and at 40 Hz or 40 cycles per second, they are claimed to be associated with peak cognitive functioning – especially in regards to memory and perception. That does NOT necessarily mean that if you up-train gamma you will automatically become “in the zone” or develop an awesome memory.

I am a bit skeptical of most brainwave research out because it seems to be largely conducted and pushed by companies selling brainwave-related products. Based on what I’ve read it seems as though targeted uptraining of certain frequencies help individuals with ADD and ADHD more than anyone. There is still relatively little research involving brainwave entrainment in general – more needs to be conducted.

I’ve written up an article documenting the benefits of brainwave entrainment as well as the types of brainwave entrainment on the market.  If you’re interested, consider reading those articles.  I’ve also highlighted some potential dangers of brainwave entrainment, so do not assume that it’s always a utopian option.  With the wrong type of training, you may reduce your IQ.

8. Brain Games, Brain Training, Puzzles

Many people swear by doing crossword puzzles and sudokus to keep their brain as sharp as possible. Companies that sell brain related puzzles and games tend to market the fact that they will help you boost your IQ and become smarter. What these games have potential to do is give your brain some exercise. They make you think and put forth some mental effort which is a good thing.

  • Dual-N-Back training – This is a game that torches your working memory, and requires sustained time and effort.
  • Crossword puzzles – Crosswords make people think and can keep your brain stimulated.
  • Lumosity – There are specific brain training protocols on this website.
  • Puzzles – Other types of puzzles that make you think and focus are good for your brain.
  • Video games – Games like brain age and big brain academy may help your cognition.
  • Sudoku – This is a popular game involving logic and numbers.

It was found that “memory training” helped give kids an IQ boost. Most of these games will help stimulate brain activity, thinking, and memory. If you are going to use a brain game in attempt to boost your IQ, research the program and determine whether others have had success with it as well.

9. Enriched Environment

Some agree that one of the most important things for developing a higher IQ is to grow up in an enriched environment. Many believe that individuals who grow up in an enriched environment tend to be smarter and have a higher socioeconomic status than those who do not. Although I think genetics plays a big role in determining intelligence, I think growing up in an enriched environment during pivotal developmental years can play a role too.

  1. Active learning – Actively learning new things helps your brain learn and may help you make connections that before were not possible. Learning a new skill such as chess, how to play a sport, how to juggle, or anything new for that matter – may help your brain in ways you never thought possible.
  2. New experiences – In addition to actively learning or engaging your brain to learn new things, new experiences can also help rewire and increase your intelligence. Something like taking a trip to a foreign country, becoming fluent in their language, and lifestyle is going to have an influence on your brain.

Although heredity plays a major role in the development of IQ, there is evidence that environment still plays a role. It is best to stimulate your brain as much as possible while growing up before the brain reaches adulthood. There are plenty of studies conducted on enriched environment vs. non-enriched environment – the enriched environment will produce a higher IQ.

10. Intermittent Fasting (BDNF)

It has been proven that the act of Intermittent Fasting helps improve cognitive functioning in both mice and humans.  It works by increasing the amount of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF).  If you properly learn how to intermittently fast, you will be increasing your BDNF – which has been linked to improvements in both learning and memorization.  It is obvious that if you are able to improve your ability to learn as well as your memory, you should experience an overall boost in intelligence.  Ironically, the process of intermittent-fasting is also linked growing new brain cells.

Intermittent-fasting is nothing too complex.  It involves eating for a specific window of time, followed by a period of “fasting” or not eating for a period of time.  This can be done in windows of a specific number of hours, or this may be conducted on an alternative-day (i.e. every other day) basis.  Not only could intermittent fasting give you a boost in intelligence, it also seems to be physically healthy and is hypothesized to help prevent against neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

11. Reading

Reading is especially important if you want to boost the IQ of your children. Some non-scientific studies have shown that reading can increase a child’s IQ by up to 6 points. Generally I would take these studies with a grain of salt since they are not published in any major journals. However, the fact is that reading will stimulate thought, learning new vocabulary, and helps people make connections between certain events should be good for the brain.

The Ten Most Important Things You Need to Know About Homeschooling

1. Homeschooling is life changing. It creates personal growth for both the parent and the child. You (the parent) get a second chance to re-discover your own special genius, while you help your children discover theirs. Nothing you will ever do will have a more profound effect on your child and your family’s future as homeschooling.

2. You are qualified to homeschool your children if you love to read to them, love to spend time with them, love to explore the world with them, love to see them learn new things and, most important, love them.

3. Children love to learn. It is as natural to them as breathing. They have an inborn hunger to explore the world and examine what is interesting. They learn by following their interests, with one interest leading to another. This is the way we all learned as younger children and how as adults we learn after we leave school. Homeschooling families learn together and know that learning is a life-long process.

4. Homeschooling is legal everywhere in the United States, but homeschooling laws vary from state to state. The three basic categories for homeschooling laws are: home education laws, private school laws, and equivalency laws. The best way to find out what your state laws are is to contact a local support group in your area. To contact a representative from your state, please visit our list of local homeschooling groups. They are well versed in your states particular laws and regulations and can assist you.

5. It does not take six to eight hours a day to homeschool your child. Most of the time children spend at school consists of waiting. Design a plan that works for your family and be prepared to scratch it several times and start over. Don’t sacrifice your family’s happiness to “school” your children. There are many ways families homeschool; find what works for you and your family.

6. Your child will not become a social misfit. Children do not need to be socialized in a large group of same-age children to become well adjusted socially. Quite the opposite. Most parents want their children to learn their social graces from adults, not other children. Homeschoolers have healthy relationships with people of all ages, including the new mother next door, the retired couple who loves to garden, their friends at ballet, 4-H and Karate and, most important, their parents.

7. You will not have to teach algebra unless you really want to. It is not necessary to teach pre-algebra to ten year olds. When your teen decides to become a scientist, or is ready to explore the requirements of college admission, together you will explore the ways they can learn algebra: in a community college class, with a tutor, or through text books.  After years of using math in their daily lives, homeschooled teens are well equipped to teach themselves higher math. Don’t worry about it when they are ten.

8. You will question yourself a lot. Maybe several times a day in the beginning. This is normal. Find a fellow homeschooling friend. Support each other. Tell each other that it’s okay to sometimes feel that your children didn’t seem to learn anything on a given day. They did, and so did you!

9. You do not have to starve or live in a tent to homeschool your children. Thousands of homeschooling families are able to make the money they need and homeschool their children at the same time. While you create a family business or dream job, or restructure your current job, your children will learn the most important skill of all- how to create the life of their dreams.

10. Trust in your child. They learned how to love, smile, crawl, walk, talk, run, dress themselves, and understand their world before starting school, and they will continue to grow and learn without school.

8 Reason Teens and Their Parents Choose Online High School

Every year more teens choose to study through online high schools. Why ditch traditional brick-and-mortar programs for online learning? Here are the top reasons that teens and their families choose online high schools.

1.  Online high schools help teens make up missed credits.

When students fall behind in traditional schools, it can be difficult to make up missed credits while keeping up with the required coursework. Flexible online high schools let teens make up courses – some teens choose to enroll online while still attending their regular high school, while others decide to move completely to the virtual realm.

2.  Online high schools help teens get ahead and graduate early.

With online learning, motivated teens don’t need to be held back by classes that must take four months to complete. Instead, they can choose an online high school that allows students to finish courses as fast as they are able to complete the coursework. Many online high school graduates have earned their diplomas and moved on to college one or two years ahead of their peers.

3.  Online high schools provide flexibility for teens with unusual schedules.

Young people involved in consuming activities such as professional acting or sports often have to miss classes for work-related events. Instead of constantly struggling to catch up with their peers, these talented teens can complete online high school courses during their down time (which may be later in the evening instead of in the middle of the day).

4.  Online high schools help struggling teens get away from negative peer groups.

Troubled teens may want to make a change but find it difficult while surrounded by former friends. By learning online, teens are able to get away from seeing the same people every day and make new friends based on shared interests rather than shared locations.

5.  Online high schools let teens work at their own pace.

By choosing a flexible online high school, teens can speed ahead when they feel confident and take longer when they are dealing with subjects they find confusing. Instead of struggling to keep up or sitting bored waiting for the class, teens can progress through coursework at a pace that accommodates their strengths and weaknesses.

6.  Online high schools allow teens to focus on their academics & avoid distraction.

Some students simply lose focus of their education when surrounded by the distractions that school can bring. Online high schools help students focus on academics and save socializing for their off hours. Sometimes students study online for a semester or two to get back on track before re-enrolling in a traditional high school.

7.  Online high schools let teens esape bullying.

Bullying is a serious problem in traditional schools. When school officials and other parents turn a blind eye to a child that is being tormented on school property, some families choose to withdraw their teen from the situation by enrolling him in an online program. Online high schools can be a permanent academic home for bullied teens or they can be a temporary solution while parents find an alternative public or private school where their child is protected.

8.  Online high schools let talented teens access programs not available locally.

Virtual programs give students in rural or disadvantaged urban areas the ability to learn from a top-notch curriculum that may not be available locally. Elite online high schools such as Stanford’s EPGY program are competitive and have high acceptance rates from upper-tier colleges.

Tips making learning fun for ADD/ADHD Childern

One positive way to keep your child’s attention focused on learning is to make the process fun. Using physical motion in a lesson, connecting dry facts to interesting trivia, or inventing silly songs that make details easier to remember can help your child enjoy learning and even reduce the symptoms of ADD/ADHD.

Helping children with ADD/ADHD enjoy math

Children who have attention deficit disorder tend to be “concrete” thinkers. They often like to hold, touch, or take part in an experience in order to learn something new. By using games and objects to demonstrate mathematical concepts, you can show your child that math can be meaningful—and fun.

  • Play games. Use memory cards, dice, or dominoes to make numbers fun. Or simply use your fingers and toes, tucking them in or wiggling them when you add or subtract.
  • Draw pictures. Especially for word problems, illustrations can help kids better understand mathematical concepts. If the word problem says there are twelve cars, help your child draw them from steering wheel to trunk.
  • Invent silly acronyms. In order to remember order of operations, for example, make up a song or phrase that uses the first letter of each operation in the correct order.

Helping children with ADD/ADHD enjoy reading

There are many ways to make reading exciting, even if the skill itself tends to be a struggle for children with ADD/ADHD. Keep in mind that reading at its most basic level made up of stories and interesting information—things that all children enjoy.

  • Read to children. Read with children. Make reading cozy, quality time with you.
  • Make predictions or “bets.” Constantly ask the child what they think might happen next. Model prediction: “The girl in the story seems pretty brave—I bet she’s going to try to save her family.”
  • Act out the story. Let the child choose his or her character and assign you one, too. Use funny voices and costumes to bring it to life.

How does your kid like to learn?

When children are given information in a way that makes it easy for them to absorb, learning is a lot more fun. If you understand how your child with ADD/ADHD learns best, you can create enjoyable lessons that pack an informational punch.

  • Auditory learners learn best by talking and listening. Have these kids recite facts to a favorite song. Let them pretend they are on a radio show and work with others often.
  • Visual learners learn best through reading or observation. Let them have fun with different fonts on the computer and use colored flash cards to study. Allow them to write or draw their ideas on paper.
  • Tactile learners learn best by physically touching something or moving as part of a lesson. For these students, provide jellybeans for counters and costumes for acting out parts of literature or history. Let them use clay and make collages.

It’s tough to enjoy learning when there is something undiagnosed standing in the way. In addition to ADD/ADHD, children may also be affected by learning disabilities. These issues make even the most exciting lessons extremely difficult for students. Like children with attention deficit disorder, children with learning disabilities can succeed in the classroom, and there are many ways you can help.

What Are the Causes of Child Behavior Problems at School?

What Are the Causes of Child Behavior Problems at School?

When a child misbehaves at school, it can be disruptive to everyone concerned. Sometimes it’s difficult to know the difference between normal and abnormal behavioral issues. What’s considered typical conduct for a 5-year-old might be unacceptable when it’s displayed by a 12-year-old. Acting out in school may have roots in a personality issue or a behavioral disorder.

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

A child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may find it difficult to pay attention at school. The American Academy of Family Physicians says the primary features of ADHD include lack of focus and impulsiveness ADHD can interfere with a child’s ability to listen and follow instructions. A child may be forgetful and disorganized, making him apt to lose school assignments and parental notes. A child with ADHD may be fidgety, overly talkative and unable to wait for her turn in class.


Oppositional Defiant Disorder

While it’s normal for a child to occasionally become upset and irritable, a child with oppositional defiant disorder is almost constantly disruptive and argumentative. This can cause numerous problems at school as he shows a blatant disregard for the rules, challenges authority figures and intentionally annoys classmates. A child with ODD may find it hard to make and keep friends and often seeks revenge on others.


Sometimes a child is so shy that it interferes with her day-to-day functioning at school. An extremely bashful child does not adjust as easily as her peers in the classroom or on the playground, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. The longer this pattern persists, the harder it becomes for a timid child to become more socially confident.

Peer Rejection

A child may be rejected by his classmates for being overweight or lacking in personal hygiene, or because of the clothes he wears. In some cases, a child is rejected by his peers because of his disruptive behavior that may be due to a behavioral disorder. A child may also be labeled an outcast by his peers for no apparent reason. Whatever the cause for dismissal, a rejected child is made to feel unwanted and unwelcome. He may respond by bullying classmates and breaking rules.